Posts Tagged ‘congenital heart defect symptoms’

What Causes Congenital Heart Disease?

Congenital heartCongenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common type of birth defect, affecting about 1% of infants born in the United States. While doctors can sometimes pinpoint the likely cause of a particular defect, most of the time the cause is uncertain.

Most CHDs are the isolated type, meaning that they occur alone without other birth defects. In most isolated CHDs, the cause cannot be determined and is generally assumed to be a combination of genetic (inherited) and environmental factors.

There are a number of genetic birth defects that often occur together with CHDs, including Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, Marfan syndrome and Williams syndrome. In these cases, a defect in the infant’s DNA causes the heart to develop improperly. For instance, about half of babies born with Down syndrome also have a CHD, most often a defect in the wall between the left and right sides of the heart (atrioventricular septal defect).

A mother’s exposure to certain substances during pregnancy can increase the risk for CHDs. Some medications increase risk, including certain acne and seizure medications. Environmental exposures can be more difficult to pinpoint but may contribute as well. A mother ingesting too much alcohol during pregnancy can also increase the risk of her infant being born with a heart defect.

In addition to environmental exposures, some health issues in pregnant women can play a role in increasing the risk for CHDs. These include infections such as rubella, as well as chronic conditions that are not under control, such as diabetes and lupus.

The Congenital Heart Center of Georgia was created to bridge the gap between pediatric and adult care for people with CHDs. If you were born with a CHD and haven’t been evaluated regularly by a cardiologist, you were recently diagnosed with a CHD or you have a child who will be transitioning into adult care in the near future, learn more about the Congenital Heart Center of Georgia and make an appointment today.

About Dr. Rodriguez

Fred Rodriguez, MDFred Rodriguez, MD, is a pediatric cardiologist who practices pediatric cardiology at the Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta Sibley Heart Center and adult congenital heart disease at the Emory Clinic and Emory University Hospital. Dr. Rodriguez earned his medical degree from the Louisiana State University at New Orleans School of Medicine, where he also completed his combined residency in both internal medicine and pediatrics. Following his residency, he completed a cardiology fellowship at Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston, with additional training in adult congenital heart disease. He is board certified in pediatrics, pediatric cardiology and internal medicine.

About the Congenital Heart Center of Georgia

The Congenital Heart Center of Georgia is a collaboration between Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta and Emory Healthcare. The Congenital Heart Center of Georgia is a comprehensive program for children and adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) that provides a continuum of lifesaving care from before birth through adulthood. It is the first comprehensive CHD program in the South and one of the largest in the country. The program is led by Emory Healthcare cardiologist Wendy Book, MD, along with Robert Campbell, MD, chief of cardiac services and director of cardiology at Children’s Sibley Heart Center. To schedule an appointment, please call 404-778-7777.

Related Links

Congenital Heart Defect Repair in Childhood: Will I Need Another Surgery?

congenital heart repairNot too long ago, most babies born with serious heart defects died in childhood. Thanks to advances in cardiac care, some estimates indicate that today as many as 90% of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are able to live well into adulthood. In fact, there are now more adults than children living with CHD, and it has become increasingly clear that this growing population requires ongoing, specialized care. For instance, even if their defects are treated surgically in childhood, many patients will require additional surgery as adults to keep their hearts functioning correctly.

When many surgical procedures were first performed to correct congenital heart defects in children, the medical community generally assumed they were curative. But as the first generation of post-operative patients survived into adulthood, some began to develop late complications associated with the procedures they underwent as children.

Unfortunately, many of these late complications develop gradually and are associated with non-specific symptoms. In addition, CHD is so closely associated with infancy and childhood, that many patients assume they no longer need to worry about their condition once they have reached adulthood. Consequently, they may not make the connection between the symptoms they develop as adults and their CHD—especially if it was successfully corrected in childhood.

This relatively recent phenomenon bolsters the argument that patients with CHD—even if their defect was surgically corrected in childhood—need to continue regular follow-up with a congenital heart specialist into adulthood so that he or she can monitor for subtle changes that may indicate a serious problem.

Another issue with managing CHD in adulthood is that adult cardiologists may have difficulty treating conditions in hearts repaired—often effectively re-configured—by pediatric surgeons years earlier. Conversely, pediatric surgeons may be unfamiliar with the unique complications that can arise years later as “corrected” anatomy ages, and in general may not have the specific training and experience required to address congenital disease in adults.

In response to this growing crisis, Emory and Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta have teamed up to help ensure that patients with CHD don’t get lost to follow-up as they transition into adulthood. The Congenital Heart Center of Georgia combines the expertise of Children’s Sibley Heart Center with that of Emory’s Adult Congenital Heart Center to address this crucial need. It is the first program of its kind in the South and one of the largest in the country.

About Dr. Kogon

Brian E. Kogon, MD , is chief of Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery at Children’s Sibley Heart Center and Emory University Hospital , surgical director of the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Program at Emory University Hospital and director of the Congenital Cardiac Surgery Fellowship at the Emory University School of Medicine.

Dr. Kogon received his medical degree from the University of Cincinnati and completed his residency in general surgery and a fellowship in cardiothoracic surgery at Indiana University. He then went on to complete his fellowship in pediatric cardiac surgery at Emory University, joining the staff in 2004.

Dr. Kogon is now a nationally recognized leader in pediatric and adult congenital heart disease. He has numerous publications in peer-reviewed journals and presents nationally at the major cardiothoracic surgery society meetings. He has earned various awards over the years, most recently the Teacher of the Year award for Pediatric Cardiac Surgery from the Sibley Cardiology Fellowship Program and Emory University.

Dr. Kogon’s major areas of interest include pediatric cardiac surgery, cardiac transplantation and adult congenital heart surgery.

About the Congenital Heart Center of Georgia

The Congenital Heart Center of Georgia is a collaboration between Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta and Emory Healthcare. The Congenital Heart Center of Georgia is a comprehensive program for children and adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) that provides a continuum of lifesaving care from before birth through adulthood. The program is led by Emory Healthcare cardiologist Wendy Book, MD, Robert Campbell, MD, chief of cardiac services and director of cardiology at Children’s Sibley Heart Center, and Brian Kogon, MD, chief of Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery at Children’s Sibley Heart Center and Emory University Hospital and surgical director of the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Program at Emory University Hospital. To schedule an appointment please call 404-778-7777.

Related Links

Signs and Symptoms of Congenital Heart Defects

CDH BabyBecause congenital defects can decrease the heart’s ability to pump blood and deliver oxygen throughout the body, they often produce telltale signs. Below are some of the more common symptoms that indicate a baby may have congenital heart disease (CHD).

  • Heart Murmur

A heart murmur is often the first sign of CHD. In basic terms, a murmur is just an extra heart sound, in addition to the regular sounds of a beating heart. Heart murmurs usually don’t indicate the presence of any heart problem. Sometimes a doctor can use a stethoscope alone to determine whether a particular murmur is a sign of heart disease. In other cases additional tests are necessary to determine the exact nature of a murmur.

  • Breathing Difficulties

Breathing difficulty caused by blood building up in the lungs (lung congestion) is a sign of a serious defect that will likely need medical or surgical intervention in the first year of life. Lung congestion may be the result of excessive blood flow from the left side of the heart to the right side through an abnormal connection, such as a hole in the heart or a connection between major blood vessels that allows blood to bypass the heart. Congestion can also be the result of an obstruction in blood flow on the left side of the heart that causes blood to back up in the vessels returning blood from the lungs.

  • Blue Skin

Some CHDs result in an inadequate amount of oxygen in the blood, which can cause the baby’s skin to have a bluish tint, especially in the lips, tongue, fingernails and toenails—called cyanosis. Cyanosis can result from an obstruction of blood flow to the lungs or a hole within the heart that allows oxygen-poor blood to flow from the right side to the left side and out to the body. It can also be related to other heart issues, including an abnormal positioning (transposition) of the arteries leaving the heart.

  • Failure to Thrive

Another result of inadequate oxygen in the blood is that an infant may lose weight or not gain enough, or may take longer to reach developmental milestones. These symptoms can result directly from the body not receiving enough oxygen to thrive, or they may be an indirect consequence of the infant tiring during feeding because of a lack of oxygen and, as a result, not receiving enough nutrients.

  • Excessive Sweating

Many CHDs can cause excess blood flow through the lungs, which makes breathing more difficult. The increase in exertion required to breathe can, in turn, result in excess sweating. Because feeding is a common form of activity in babies, this excess sweating is often closely associated with feeding, though any activity that causes an increase in the infant’s breathing rate can also cause increased sweat production. Excess blood flow to the lungs can also accelerate the infant’s metabolism, a side effect of which is increased sweating.

If you notice any of these signs in your baby or child, call your doctor right away. If your doctor notices these signs, you may be referred to a pediatric cardiologist.

About Dr. Rodriguez

Fred Rodriguez, MDFred Rodriguez, MD, is a pediatric cardiologist who practices pediatric cardiology at the Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta Sibley Heart Center and adult congenital heart disease at the Emory Clinic and Emory University Hospital. Dr. Rodriguez earned his medical degree from the Louisiana State University at New Orleans School of Medicine, where he also completed his combined residency in both internal medicine and pediatrics. Following his residency, he completed a cardiology fellowship at Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston, with additional training in adult congenital heart disease. He is board certified in pediatrics, pediatric cardiology and internal medicine.

About the Congenital Heart Center of Georgia

The Congenital Heart Center of Georgia is a collaboration between Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta and Emory Healthcare. The Congenital Heart Center of Georgia is a comprehensive program for children and adults with congenital heart disease that provides a continuum of lifesaving care from before birth through adulthood. It is the first comprehensive congenital heart disease program in the South and one of the largest in the country. The program is led by Emory Healthcare cardiologist Wendy Book, MD, Robert Campbell, MD, chief of cardiac services and director of cardiology at Children’s Sibley Heart Center, and Brian Kogon, MD, chief of pediatric cardiothoracic surgery. To schedule an appointment, please call 404-778-7777.

Related Links