Heart Health

What is a Blood Clot?

bloodclot_7-17When you get a cut, blood clotting is your body’s healthy response to stem the bleeding and begin to close the wound so it can heal. But too much of a good thing can cause problems if it happens inside the body and obstructs blood flow through healthy blood vessels. Depending on where the clot (or “thrombus”) occurs and ends up–they can travel in your blood vessels– it can cause serious problems that require medical attention, including stroke, heart attack, or pulmonary embolism (clot in the lungs).

At risk

Unhealthy clotting can be caused or exacerbated by a number of factors, so it’s worth being aware of danger signs if you take certain medications (like oral contraceptives, hormone therapy drugs and some breast cancer medications), have a family history of blood clots or heart problems, smoke, , are pregnant, obese, have high cholesterol or have recently had surgery.

Causes for concern

Here are some red flags that could indicate a problem. You should seek medical assistance if you have swelling, redness, numbness or pain in an arm or leg, or you:

  • feel short of breath;
  • experience chest pain for more than a few minutes;
  • have pain that extends into your arm, back, shoulder or jaw;
  • have sudden severe lightheadedness
  • have numbness in your face, arm, or leg
  • have sudden trouble speaking or understanding others
  • have sudden trouble seeing (e.g., blurred or double vision)
  • have sudden weakness in an arm or a leg


Your doctor will need to consider all medications, supplements, and herbs you’re taking, for their potential impact on blood clotting. Your history, a physical exam, blood tests and imaging may all be used to confirm diagnosis. Depending on the location and severity, drugs to dissolve the clot (or keep it from growing larger) or surgery to remove it might be indicated. There are two types of blood thinning drugs you might be prescribed, anticoagulants (such as warfarin) or antiplatelets (such as aspirin). If you have had a stroke or a heart attack, you will also need a cholesterol medication called statin to reduce the chance of a future event.


Keep that blood moving! Maintaining an active, non-smoking lifestyle with regular exercise, healthy weight and diet and low blood pressure could go a long way in preventing risk factors. Try to break up long periods of sitting with breaks to walk around. If you have risk factors, talk with your doctor about habits and/or drugs that can reduce your risk.

About Dr. Jaber
Wissam Jaber, MD is a cardiologist at Emory University Hospital Midtown where he runs the pulmonary embolism treatment program.  He has more than 7 years of experience in interventional cardiology, including treating patients with heart attack and blocked heart arteries.

Is a Daily Aspirin Regimen Right for Me?

DailyAspirin_ 7-8It’s long been considered common knowledge that aspirin reduces the risk of the formation of blood clots, which causes heart attacks and strokes. While it was once used on an occasional basis for fever, or aches and pains, aspirin is now taken daily like a vitamin pill for many. And what’s not to love? It costs two cents a day and has some potential incredible benefits; however, popping aspirin on a daily basis to lower your chances of having a heart attack or stroke may not be a good approach for everyone.


It may seem like it’s not that big of a deal, but taking aspirin when you don’t need to can lead to some potentially serious health problems. When you take aspirin, the level of stomach protection is decreased which tends to cause bleeding. As a result, people who take aspirin regularly will have roughly double the likelihood of having an ulcer or gastrointestinal bleeding. An unneeded aspirin regimen can also make your blood too thin, causing problems if you need surgery.

Is it for you?

So how do you decide whether or not a regular, preventive dose of aspirin is right for you? Firstly, for those with coronary heart disease the answer is generally yes, unless there is a personal history of stomach bleeding. For those without coronary heart disease the decision is more complicated and is based on your individual risk of having a heart attack versus your risk of bleeding from aspirin. In this case it is best to consult your cardiologist to help you make an informed decision

Luckily, it’s pretty easy to identify those individuals who most likely don’t need to take aspirin on a daily basis. Generally, healthy people in their 20s to 40s, with no cardiac risk factors and no major risk factors for developing the other diseases aspirin can prevent, should not take aspirin unless advised by a physician. For those with very low risk, the focus should be on a healthy lifestyle, which includes getting enough exercise, eating properly, and getting plenty of sleep. These are all safe alternatives to a daily aspirin regimen.

Less is more

Despite the risks, daily aspirin can be beneficial to certain high-risk people, provided they take the appropriate dosage. If you and your doctor decide you should be taking aspirin daily, you need to evaluate how much is right for you. In the case of aspirin and other NSAIDs, a little goes a long way. The recommended dose for someone who needs to be on an aspirin regimen is 81 milligrams a day.

About Dr. Baer
Jefferson Baer, MD, MPH – https://www.emoryhealthcare.org/physicians/b/baer-jefferson.html – is an Assistant Professor of Medicine, Director of Preventive Cardiology at Emory University Hospital Midtown.  Dr. Baer specializes in cardiology and in valvular heart disease. He pursued a degree in medicine from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill NC, and his internship in Internal Medicine and his residency in internal medicine at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA.   He completed his fellowship at the University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle WA.

Takeaways from Dr. Lundberg’s Hypertension Chat

Hypertension Live ChatThanks to everyone who joined us Tuesday, June 23, for our live online chat on “Things You Never Knew About Your Blood Pressure” hosted by Dr. Gina Lundberg of the Emory Women’s Heart Center!

To prevent hypertensive heart disease, it’s important that you consistently keep your blood pressure nice and low. Dr. Lundberg noted that the good news is that 80% of all cardiovascular deaths could be prevented with better lifestyle – healthy eating and exercise – and better blood pressure monitoring, and discussed ways to help you achieve this goal.

If you missed this chat, be sure to check out the full list of questions and answers on the hypertension chat transcript.

Here are just a few highlights from the chat:

Question: Are there any foods I should incorporate into my diet to control high blood pressure?

Gina Lundberg, MDDr. Lundberg: There is no one food you can eat to lower your blood pressure. The best thing you can do is to make a change to your diet as a whole. I’d recommend following the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Diet. This diet is very high in fruits and veggies (potassium and magnesium). Potassium correlates to lower blood pressure. You can find more info about the DASH Diet here.


Question: Is it normal for my blood pressure and heart to race? I exercise regularly.

Gina Lundberg, MDDr. Lundberg: Yes, when you exercise routinely your heart rate will go up slower but you will still get to a peak heart rate with prolonged exercise. Many people feel their heart is racing with sudden activities such as walking up the stairs, but this is common as there is no warm up prior to the activity.


Question: How much does stress really impact blood pressure?

Gina Lundberg, MDDr. Lundberg: Stress can raise your blood pressure and your heart rate from internal release of adrenaline. Some people over-respond to their adrenaline and get dangerously high blood pressures very suddenly. An exercise stress test can simulate stress on the body and help determine if blood pressure is getting dangerously high. Sudden surges in blood pressure can cause stroke or heart attack. Chronic stress can lead to chronically elevated mild to moderate hypertension which can also be dangerous for your eyes, brain, heart, and kidneys.

Thanks again to everyone who joined us live for the chat! If you have additional questions for Dr. Lundberg, feel free to leave a comment in our comments area below.

Things You Never Knew About Your Blood Pressure

blood pressure live chatYou’ve probably heard high blood pressure, or hypertension, called the “silent killer” because it can damage your arteries and organs without you ever realizing something is wrong. Not only can it damage your heart, but it can also cause stroke, kidney damage, vision loss, memory loss, erectile dysfunction, fluid buildup in the lungs and angina.

Join us on Tuesday, June 23, at 12:00 p.m. for a live, interactive web chat about “Things You Never Knew About Your Blood Pressure.” Dr. Gina Lundberg will be available to answer questions and discuss various topics about high blood pressure. For instance, did you know that common over the counter medication can increase your blood pressure? Did you know you can have high blood pressure and never experience any symptoms at all?

During this interactive web chat, you’ll be able to ask questions and get real-time answers from our Emory Healthcare professional.

Register now for our June 23 chat:

Chat Sign Up

About Dr. Lundberg

Gina Lundberg, MDGina Price Lundberg, MD, FACC , is the clinical director of the Emory Women’s Heart Center and a preventive cardiologist with Emory Clinic in East Cobb. Dr. Lundberg is an assistant professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine.

She is a national American Heart Association (AHA) spokesperson and was a board member for the Atlanta chapter from 2001 to 2007. Dr. Lundberg was the Honoree for the AHA’s North Fulton/Gwinnett County Heart Ball for 2006. In 2009, she was awarded the Women with Heart Award at the Go Red Luncheon for outstanding dedication to the program. She is also a Circle of Red founding member and Cor Vitae member for the AHA.

She has been interviewed on the subject of heart disease in women by multiple media outlets, including CNN and USA Today. In 2007, Governor Sonny Perdue appointed Dr. Lundberg to the advisory board of the Georgia Department of Women’s Health, where she served until 2011. In 2005, Atlanta Woman magazine awarded Dr. Lundberg the Top 10 Innovator Award for Medicine. In 2008, Atlanta Woman named her one of the Top 25 Professional Women to Watch and the only woman in the field of medicine.

Dr. Lundberg attended the Medical College of Georgia and trained in internal medicine at Atlanta Medical Center (Georgia Baptist). She completed her cardiology fellowship at Rush University in Chicago. She has been in practice in Atlanta since 1994. She is board certified in cardiology and internal medicine and was recertified in both in 2002. Dr. Lundberg has two children and considers motherhood her first and foremost career. Dr. Lundberg has lived most of her life in the metro Atlanta area.

About the Emory Women’s Heart Center

Emory Women’s Heart Center is a unique program dedicated to screening for, preventing and treating heart disease in women. The Center, led by nationally renowned cardiologist Gina Lundberg, MD, provides comprehensive cardiac risk assessments and screenings for patients at risk for heart disease, as well as a full range of treatment options for women already diagnosed with heart disease. Call 404-778-7777 to schedule a comprehensive cardiac screening and find out if you are at risk for heart disease.

The Mediterranean Diet

Mediterranean salmon saladBy now, you’ve likely heard about the Mediterranean Diet. You may have heard it’s good for you, can help you manage your weight and even allows you to enjoy some red wine. But is it true? Can you really enjoy yummy foods and still look and feel great? The answer is – ABSOLUTELY!

The Mediterranean diet is a lifestyle change that helps decrease your risk of cardiovascular events in the future. Research has shown that people who incorporate plenty of produce, fish, whole grains and healthy fats not only weigh less, but also have a decreased risk for heart disease, depression, and dementia.

Because the Mediterranean diet should be a lifestyle choice, it involves the daily consumption of a variety of fruit, vegetables, vegetarian proteins (beans, nuts, legumes), moderate amounts of whole grains (whole wheat breads and pasta, brown rice) and small amounts of red meat. It is important to avoid processed and pre-packaged foods and meals, as they may provide excess fat, sodium and preservatives.

Here is an easy recipe I enjoy making for my family. The leftovers are great for lunch the next day! Feel free to add olives, peppers or any other vegetables of your choosing!




  • 3 tablespoons olive oil
  • Juice from one lemon
  • 1.5 tablespoons Dijon Mustard
  • 2 teaspoons honey
  • pinch of kosher salt
  • ground pepper

Wisk the following ingredients together:

  • 4 tablespoons olive oil
  • 2 tablespoons cider or red wine vinegar
  • 1 tablespoon Dijon mustard
  • 1 teaspoon honey
  • pinch of salt
  • pepper to taste


  • Salmon filets (I use ¾ pounds for 3 -4 servings but make a pound if I want more leftovers)
  • ¾ lb fingerling potatoes, boiled
  • large handful green beans, steamed
  • 4 eggs – hard boiled and cut into quarters
  • baby spring mix


  • Preheat the oven to 400 degrees.
  • Marinate the salmon for 10-30 minutes.
  • Bake the salmon for 20 minutes (or until desired doneness) on a foil lined pan with marinade poured over the top. The salmon should be cooked through so it can be flaked apart into the salad.
  • Assemble the salad with the baby spring mix on the bottom and the eggs (quartered), green beans, potatoes and flaked salmon on top.

You can dress the entire salad with the vinaigrette or serve the salad and dress after. I reserve portions of spring mix, potatoes, egg, green beans and salmon to assemble in a Tupperware when cool for lunch the next day, and reserve a portion of the vinaigrette in a separate container.

Check out our other heart-healthy recipe ideas!

To discuss your risk factors for heart disease and to learn more ways to help prevent heart disease, please schedule an appointment with the Emory Women’s Heart Center by clicking here or calling HealthConnection at 404-778-7777.

About Dr. Cutchins

Alexis Cutchins, MDAlexis Cutchins, MD is Assistant Professor of Medicine at Emory University School of Medicine. Dr. Cutchins completed medical school at Emory University School of Medicine before going to New York Presbyterian Hospital for her Internship and Residency in Internal Medicine. She completed an NIH-supported research fellowship in vascular biology and a clinical fellowship in cardiovascular diseases at the University of Virginia in 2012. She has a special interest in heart disease in women in addition to heart disease prevention and risk reduction in cardiology patients.

Dr. Cutchins has published several different articles on adipose tissue distribution and obesity in journals such as Circulation Research, Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology and Stroke and has a special interest in the effects of adipose tissue distribution on the heart.

Dr. Cutchins is board certified in Internal Medicine (2007) and Cardiovascular Diseases (2012). She is a member of several professional organizations including the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology.

Dr. Cutchins sees patients at Emory Heart & Vascular Center at Emory University Hospital Midtown and Emory Heart & Vascular Center at Emory Saint Joseph’s.

She enjoys spending time outdoors with her husband, their three daughters and their dog. She loves to cook and ride horses.

Why is Screening for Heart Disease Important?

Cardiovascular ScreeningDid you know that Emory Healthcare offers preventive health and wellness screenings throughout the metro Atlanta area? Our goal is to improve the health of our patients and provide communities greater access to important screening services, as well as the Emory Healthcare Network of physicians and providers.

Emory Women’s Heart Center is a unique program dedicated to the diagnosis, screening, treatment and prevention of heart disease in women. The Center, led by nationally renowned women’s heart specialist Gina Lundberg, MD, provides comprehensive heart screenings for patients at risk for cardiovascular disease as well as a full range of treatment options for those already diagnosed with heart disease.

Why is heart disease screening important?

Screenings are often the best way to identify risk factors that may contribute to heart disease. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), few people have “ideal risk levels on all screening tests. However, if you do have test results that are less than ideal, it doesn’t mean you’re destined to develop a serious cardiovascular disease. On the contrary, it means you’re in position to begin changing your health in a positive way.”

What does a heart disease screening entail?

Emory Women’s Heart Center offers three screening options which are based on the patient’s needs:

Plan A: ($75) Initial Assessment for All Women
Your initial screening includes a review for any family history of cardiovascular disease and a comprehensive global cardiac risk assessment that includes your age, blood pressure, total cholesterol level, HDL level, smoking history and hypertension history. You will also work directly with a nurse practitioner to develop an individualized plan that helps you reduce your identifed risk factors.

Our comprehensive examination includes:

  •  Body mass index
  • Blood pressure
  • Cholesterol evaluation
  • Depression scale assessment
  • Fasting blood sugar test
  • Exercise recommendations
  • Physical exam
  • Pregnancy history
  • Sleep evaluation
  • Waist circumference
  • Weight consultation

Plan B: ($100) Women with Intermediate Risk, Hypertension or Diabetes Mellitus

  • Ankle brachial index (ABI) – Screening for circulation abnormalities in the lower extremities
  • Echocardiogram – Test to evaluate the structural aspects of the heart
  • Electrocardiogram (EKG) – Test to evaluate the electrical conduction of the heart
  • Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) – Blood test to determine diabetes risk
  • Microalbuminuria – Urine test to screen for early kidney disease

Plan C: ($100) Women with Intermediate Risk or Diabetes Mellitus

  • Calcium score – Computed tomography (CT) of the coronary arteries to help determine risk for coronary disease or blockage

The AHA recommends that cardiovascular screening start at age 20. Use your screening as an opportunity to take charge of your health, modify unhealthy behaviors and have a positive impact on your life. To request an appointment with the Emory Women’s Heart Center, please call 404-778-7777 or click here.

Are You at Risk? Heart Disease Risk Factors

heart riskDid you know that, in some cases, heart disease is preventable? Being aware of your risk factors allows you to take control of your heart health!

Traditional risk factors for heart disease in men and women are:

  • High blood pressure (hypertension)– can damage arteries by speeding up the atherosclerosis process.
  • Diabetes – women with diabetes have a two to four times higher risk of stroke or death from heart disease compared with women who do not have diabetes.
  • Age – women over 55 are more likely to have a heart attack.
  • High blood cholesterol– a high level of Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol can narrow the arteries as the deposits build up in the arteries.
  • Obesity– being overweight (Body Mass Index, BMI, over 25) can lead to high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol.
  • Family history – a person with a family history of heart disease is at higher risk for heart disease.
  • Lack of physical activity and poor diet – people who live sedentary lifestyles and eat unhealthy foods are more likely to develop heart disease.

Other risk factors for women that are not typically present in men include:

  • Metabolic syndrome— metabolic syndrome combines extra weight (fat) around your mid section, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, low levels of HDL (“good cholesterol”) and high triglycerides.
  • Mental stress and depression – If a person is depressed she is less likely to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
  • Smoking – poses a greater risk to women than men.
  • Estrogen levels – lower levels of estrogen after menopause lead to microvascular disease or cardiovascular disease in the smaller blood vessels.
  • Chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatments for breast cancer
  • Pregnancy complications – history of pregnancy complications such as high blood pressure or diabetes as well as delivering a pre – term infant.
  • Lupus or rheumatoid arthritis – history of lupus or rheumatoid arthritis

Take Our Heart Disease Risk Quiz!

If you have any of the risk factors described above, we encourage you to schedule a comprehensive cardiovascular risk assessment with an Emory clinician. You may do so by calling 404-778-7777, or clicking to request an appointment specifically with the Emory Women’s Heart Center.

What’s Causing Your Leg Pain? – Join Us for a Live Web Chat!

PAD Live ChatPeripheral artery disease (PAD) is a commonly undiagnosed disease affecting about 8.5 million Americans. Symptoms vary from cramping in the lower extremities, as well as pain or tiredness in leg or hip muscles. According to the American Heart Association, many people mistake the symptoms of PAD for something else, which is why it can easily go undiagnosed. Having the correct diagnosis is important because people with PAD are at a higher risk of heart attack or stroke, and if untreated, PAD can lead to gangrene and amputation.

Many people think their leg pain is due to arthritis, sciatica or just a part of aging. People with diabetes may even confuse PAD pain with a neuropathy, a common diabetic symptom that causes a burning or painful discomfort of the feet or thighs. It is important to know that, while PAD is potentially life-threatening, it can be managed or even reversed with proper care. If you’re having any kind of recurring pain, talk to your healthcare professional.

Join me on Tuesday, March 24, at 12:00 p.m. for an interactive web chat entitled “What’s causing your leg pain?” Dr. Robertson will be available to answer questions and discuss various topics about PAD, including symptoms, diagnosis and misdiagnosis, prevention and treatment.

During this interactive web chat, you’ll be able to ask questions and get real-time answers from our Emory Healthcare professional.

Register now for our March 24 chat at emoryhealthcare.org/mdchats.

About Dr. Robertson

Gregory Robertson, MDGreg Robertson, MD, is the chief of the Emory Heart and Vascular Clinic at Johns Creek. At the Emory Johns Creek Hospital he is chief of cardiology and the medical director of the Cardiac Catheterization laboratory and interventional program. He is board certified in Vascular Medicine, Endovascular Medicine, Interventional Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine.

Dr. Robertson’s research has had a focus on the development of new technologies and techniques to treat blocked leg arteries in patients with peripheral arterial disease, helping patients walk farther and prevent limb amputation in diabetic patients. While in the San Francisco Bay Area for 16 years before moving to Atlanta, he practiced with the well-known medical device inventor Dr. John Simpson, whose development teams invented the atherectomy procedure and the first percutaneous arterial closure device. Atherectomy is a procedure which allows the physician to remove plaque in blocked arteries without major surgery. His newest project is with Dr. Simpson’s invention of the Avinger Ocelot and Pantheris devices which open blocked arteries using smart laser imaging.

Dr. Robertson’s clinical expertise is oriented on performing minimally-invasive procedures to avoid major surgery. He has developed many of the vascular programs at the new Emory Johns Creek Hospital including 1) carotid artery stenting, 2) percutaneous repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms and 3) limb preservation for those at risk of limb amputation. He has also developed the cardiac intervention programs for emergency heart attack victims and elective procedures to include PCI and PFO/ASD closure.

Cutting-Edge Therapies for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common monogenetic cardiovascular disorder occurring in about 1 per 500 people in the general population. Approaches to the treatment of HCM vary considerably depending on how the patient is affected. At Emory Healthcare, we are fortunate to have true experts capable of providing state-of-art therapies which range from genetic counseling or simple life-style adjustments to cardiac transplantation. Patients at risk for sudden cardiac death receive life-saving cardiac defibrillators. Those with drug-refractory symptoms due to obstruction of outflow from the heart receive septal reduction either by open heart surgery or by catheter ablation. The Emory Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Center is a regional and national center of excellence capable of addressing the full range of challenges in the patient with HCM.

For more information about programs that make up the Emory Heart & Vascular Center, visit emoryhealthcare.org/heart.

About John Douglas, MD

John Douglas, MDDr. John Douglas is an interventional cardiologist at the Emory Heart & Vascular Center. He is also a Professor of Medicine at Emory University School of Medicine and Director of the Interventional Cardiology Fellowship Program. He is one of the most tenured Emory cardiologists, beginning his career in 1974. He has been recognized in America’s Top Doctors, Atlanta’s Top Doctors and The Best Doctors in America.

Advancing Patient-Centered Cardiac Care

Patient Centered Cardiac CareOne of the chief goals of quality healthcare, as defined by the Institute of Medicine, is to provide patient-centered care. Doing so requires “providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions” (Institute of Medicine, 2001). As patients know, this kind of care doesn’t always happen. Providing patient-centered care requires effective communication and a trusting relationship. It also requires high-quality evidence regarding what forms of treatment are most likely to advance patients’ goals.

Emory has placed patient and family centered care at the top of the list of priorities and is taking important steps to make this happen. The Patient and Family Advisor program, for example, has created a way for patients and families to be “at the table” in important discussions about the way that care is delivered within our system. The clinicians at the Emory Heart & Vascular Center are active participants in helping to transform care at Emory and are committed to working with our patients to provide them with care that is most consistent with their goals. My colleague Dr. Cassimatis, for example, recently wrote on this blog a very helpful set of tips that will help patients to get the most out of their visit and ensure that their questions are answered. Emory cardiologists are committed to answering these questions and to working with patients and their family members to make decisions that are often complex.

Emory cardiologists are also actively conducting research to advance the mission of patient-centered care. Emory physicians are studying how our patients want us to communicate with them about research studies for which they might be eligible. Emory physicians are studying what information is most important to patients undergoing evaluation and treatment for severe heart failure. And Emory physicians are studying the role of new tools for communicating with patients about the risks and benefits of cardiac procedures. These are just a few examples of the ways that Emory physicians and researchers are helping to improve communication and facilitate the kind of trusting relationship that is essential to effective patient-centered care.

Because no decision can adequately reflect patients’ values without evidences, Emory doctors are also at the forefront of conducting clinical research studies that are essential to address many of the pressing problems that patients face. It is only through well-done research that we will have the information our current and future patients need to make decisions that are consistent with their goals.

In all of these ways, the clinicians at the Emory Heart & Vascular Center are committed to ensuring, and to helping other doctors ensure, that patients’ decisions match their values as much as possible.

If you have feedback or suggestions on how to improve patient-centered care at Emory Healthcare, please let us know by leaving a comment below. To make an appointment with an Emory cardiologist or cardiovascular specialist, please call 404-778-7777.

About Dr. Dickert

Neal Dickert, MD, PhDNeal Dickert, MD, PhD is Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Division of Cardiology. He also holds a secondary appointment in the Department of Epidemiology at the Rollins School of Public Health and is a senior faculty fellow at the Emory Center for Ethics. He also serves as associate program director for the cardiology fellowship program. Dr. Dickert received his MD from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and PhD from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Dickert is board-certified in cardiology and internal medicine. Clinically, Dr. Dickert practices in the Emory University Hospital and Atlanta VA Medical Center Cardiac Care Units. Dr. Dickert’s research focuses on ethical issues relevant to cardiology practice and clinical research.