heart conditions

What Is Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) and Does It Require Treatment?

SVT heartSupraventricular tachycardia (SVT), also referred to as paroxysmal SVT or PSVT, is a type of abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) in which the heart beats too fast. When the heart beats too fast, it may not function effectively, resulting in less oxygen-rich blood reaching the tissues throughout the body. SVT often starts and ends suddenly, and may not be associated with any symptoms. However, many people do experience symptoms as a result of SVT, including palpitations (rapid, noticeable heartbeats), dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath and chest pain (angina).

In most cases, SVT occurs because of a malfunction of the heart’s electrical system. The heart is made up of two upper chambers (atria) and two lower chambers (ventricles). In a normal heartbeat, an electrical impulse originates from an area in the right atrium called the sinus node. This impulse travels first to the atria, causing them to contract and pump blood into the ventricles. The electrical impulse then continues along its circuit to the atrioventricular (AV) node, where it pauses to allow the ventricles to fill with blood. Finally, the impulse reaches the ventricles, signaling them to contract and pump blood out to the lungs and the body. In SVT, the electrical malfunction occurs at some point before the electrical signal reaches the ventricles.

Common types of SVT include:

  • Atrial fibrillation (A-fib) is a type of tachycardia that occurs when multiple circuits of disorganized electrical activity in the atria replace the organized electrical activity that is normally generated by the heart. The result is fibrillation (quivering) of the atria instead of regular heartbeats.
  • Atrioventricular (AV) node re-entry tachycardia (AVNRT) is the most common form of SVT. Patients with this arrhythmia do not have structural problems with their heart, but have two pathways that can channel impulses to and from the AV node. Under certain conditions, usually following a premature beat, these pathways can form an electrical circuit, which starts a rapid heart rhythm.
  • Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is an arrhythmia caused by an extra electrical pathway from the atria to the ventricles. Although some people with WPW do not have any symptoms, others experience palpitations, dizziness and angina. Rarely, WPW can be life threatening.

SVT often first occurs in children and young adults. Many controllable factors can increase the risk of SVT episodes, including stress and anxiety, certain medications, excessive alcohol or caffeine consumption, smoking and the use of illegal stimulants such as cocaine.

Otherwise healthy individuals experiencing SVT without significant symptoms may not require any treatment. However, if you have an underlying related health condition or significant symptoms, treatment may be necessary. This may take the form of medication therapy, pacemaker implantation or cardiac ablation, in which radiofrequency energy is used to destroy very tiny areas of tissue that give rise to abnormal electrical signals.

Emory’s Arrhythmia treatment program is one of the most comprehensive and innovative clinics for heart rhythm disorders in the country. In addition to offering state-of-the-art care for the full range of heart rhythm disorders, we also operate heart rhythm screening clinics at a number of locations throughout the Atlanta area. If you have experienced an irregular heartbeat, palpitations, a racing heartbeat or other troubling heart irregularities, we recommend that you schedule an appointment with one of our specialty-trained nurse practitioners, who will begin a comprehensive screening evaluation to determine whether you need follow-up care with an electrophysiologist.

About Dr. DeLurgio

David DeLurgio, MDDavid DeLurgio, MD , is a professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine and director of Electrophysiology at Emory Saint Joseph’s Hospital. Dr. DeLurgio earned his medical degree from the University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, where he also completed his residency and fellowship training. He joined Emory Healthcare in 1996 and served as the director of the Arrhythmia Center and Electrophysiology Lab at Emory University Hospital Midtown before relocating to Emory Saint Joseph’s Hospital.

About Emory’s Arrhythmia Center

Emory’s Arrhythmia Center is one of the most comprehensive and innovative clinics for heart rhythm disorders in the country. Our electrophysiologists have been pioneers in shaping treatment options for patients with arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, as well as for those with congestive heart disease. Our specialized electrophysiology (EP) labs host state-of-the-art equipment, including computerized three-dimensional mapping systems to assist with the ablation of complex arrhythmias, and an excimer laser system to perform pacemaker and defibrillator lead extractions.

Patients with devices, whether implanted at Emory or elsewhere, have access to Emory’s comprehensive follow-up care. Patients benefit from remote monitoring, quarterly atrial fibrillation support groups and 24-hour implantable cardiac device (ICD) and pacemaker monitoring services. Inpatient telemetry and coronary care units, as well as outpatient care and educational support of patients with pacemakers and ICDs, complete Emory’s comprehensive range of arrhythmia treatments and services.

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What Is Bradycardia and Why Does It Occur?

bradycardiaBradycardia is the medical term for a heart rate that is too slow — specifically, a heart rate less than 60 beats per minute in adults. However, under some circumstances, a heart rate less than 60 beats per minute is perfectly healthy and not a cause for intervention. For instance, a resting heart rate below 60 beats per minute in a person who is physically fit may be normal, and it can be normal for the heart rate to dip below 60 beats per minute in some older adults and in anyone during sleep.

The heart consists of two upper chambers (atria) and two lower chambers (ventricles). In a normal heartbeat, an electrical impulse originates from an area in the right atrium called the sinus node. This impulse travels first to the atria, causing them to contract and pump blood into the ventricles. The electrical impulse then continues along its circuit to the ventricles, signaling them to contract and pump blood out to the lungs and the body.

In bradycardia, there is a problem with this electrical impulse. For instance, it may trigger the atria to contract, but not reach the ventricles to signal their contraction (heart block), or the signal may travel too slowly along its pathway through the heart. As a result, the heart may not pump enough blood out to the body, which can cause a range of symptoms, such as dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pain (angina), lightheadedness and fainting. In severe cases, bradycardia can even lead to cardiac arrest.

Problems with the heart’s electrical system can have many causes, including damage to the heart muscle related to aging or heart disease, an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, the use of certain medications, hypothyroidism, sleep apnea, high blood pressure and underlying heart conditions, including congenital defects.

If your doctor determines that bradycardia occurs as a result of an underlying condition, such as high blood pressure, hypothyroidism or sleep apnea, the first step will generally be to treat the underlying condition to see if this corrects the slow heart rate. If medications you take may be causing your bradycardia, you doctor may adjust or change your medication regimen. If these approaches do not resolve your bradycardia, your doctor may recommend the implantation of a pacemaker to help the heart maintain a healthy rate.

If you experience symptoms of bradycardia or any other abnormal heart rhythm, you can visit one of Emory’s new heart rhythm screening clinics located throughout the Atlanta area to determine if your condition is serious.

About Dr. Patel

Anshul M. Patel, MDAnshul Patel, MD , is an assistant professor of medicine and electrophysiologist who practices primarily at Emory Saint Joseph’s Hospital. He graduated magna cum laude from Harvard College and received his medical degree from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Dr. Patel completed his internship, residency and cardiology training at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, where he also completed a fellowship in cardiac electrophysiology. He specializes in pacemaker and defibrillator implantation, as well as catheter ablation, with a particular interest in atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias.

About Emory’s Arrhythmia Center

Emory’s Arrhythmia Center is one of the most comprehensive and innovative clinics for heart rhythm disorders in the country. Our electrophysiologists have been pioneers in shaping treatment options for patients with arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, as well as for those with congestive heart disease. Our specialized electrophysiology (EP) labs host state-of-the-art equipment, including computerized three-dimensional mapping systems to assist with the ablation of complex arrhythmias, and an excimer laser system to perform pacemaker and defibrillator lead extractions.

Patients with devices, whether implanted at Emory or elsewhere, have access to Emory’s comprehensive follow-up care. Patients benefit from remote monitoring, quarterly atrial fibrillation support groups and 24-hour implantable cardiac device (ICD) and pacemaker monitoring services. Inpatient telemetry and coronary care units, as well as outpatient care and educational support of patients with pacemakers and ICDs, complete Emory’s comprehensive range of arrhythmia treatments and services.

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Is a Fast Heart Rate Dangerous?

TachycardiaTachycardia is a general term used to describe a rapid heartbeat. In some instances, tachycardia is the body’s normal reaction to situations that cause increased levels of adrenaline and generally poses little or no health risk. However, other types of tachycardia can be more serious.

When the heart beats significantly faster than normal, it can be less effective in providing oxygen-rich blood to tissues throughout the body. Though tachycardia sometimes goes unnoticed, it many cases the reduction in oxygen supply is associated with a range of symptoms, including shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness, lightheadedness and chest pain. Some types of tachycardia can even lead to a heart attack or stroke.

Tachycardia can sometimes be reversed with lifestyle changes such as reducing alcohol or caffeine consumption, controlling stress or making adjustments to your medication regimen. In other cases, tachycardia can be controlled by treating an underlying medical condition, such as anemia, heart disease or hyperthyroidism.

However, some types of tachycardia occur due to an extra electrical circuit in the heart or structural damage to the heart muscle (e.g., from illness or a heart attack) that causes the heart’s electrical system to malfunction. In these cases, direct treatment may be necessary. This might take the form of medication therapy, pacemaker implantation or cardiac ablation, in which radiofrequency energy is used to destroy very tiny areas of tissue that give rise to abnormal electrical signals.

Emory’s Arrhythmia Center is one of the most comprehensive and innovative clinics for heart rhythm disorders in the country. In addition to offering state-of-the-art care for the full range of heart rhythm disorders, the Center also offers heart rhythm screening clinics at a number of locations throughout the Atlanta area. If you have experienced an irregular heartbeat, palpitations, a racing heartbeat or other troubling heart irregularities, we recommend that you schedule an appointment with one of our specialty-trained nurse practitioners, who will begin a comprehensive screening evaluation to determine whether you need follow-up care with an electrophysiologist.

About Dr. El-Chami

Mikhael El Chami, MDMikhael El-Chami, MD , completed his residency at Emory in 2003 and was nominated for a chief-residency year at Emory in 2004. His training in cardiology and electrophysiology also was completed at Emory. His areas of clinical interest include cardiac arrhythmia ablation, cardiac resynchronization therapy and prevention of sudden cardiac death. Dr. El-Chami holds organizational leadership positions with the American College of Cardiology and the Heart Rhythm Society. He speaks fluent Arabic and French.

About Emory’s Arrhythmia Center

Emory’s Arrhythmia Center is one of the most comprehensive and innovative clinics for heart rhythm disorders in the country. Our electrophysiologists have been pioneers in shaping treatment options for patients with arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, as well as for those with congestive heart disease. Our specialized electrophysiology (EP) labs host state-of-the-art equipment, including computerized three-dimensional mapping systems to assist with the ablation of complex arrhythmias, and an excimer laser system to perform pacemaker and defibrillator lead extractions.

Patients with devices, whether implanted at Emory or elsewhere, have access to Emory’s comprehensive follow-up care. Patients benefit from remote monitoring, quarterly atrial fibrillation support groups and 24-hour implantable cardiac device (ICD) and pacemaker monitoring services. Inpatient telemetry and coronary care units, as well as outpatient care and educational support of patients with pacemakers and ICDs, complete Emory’s comprehensive range of arrhythmia treatments and services.

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Are Heart Palpitations Cause for Concern?

Heart BeatPalpitations are rapid, noticeable heartbeats that may be felt in the chest, back or throat. Often, they are associated with a fluttering sensation in the chest or that of the heart skipping a beat. They can occur following exertion or while you are at rest.

Most of the time, palpitations are not a sign of a serious health condition. For instance, caffeine and nicotine consumption can cause palpitations. They can also occur as a result of stress or anxiety, vigorous exercise, a fever, hormonal changes associated with pregnancy or menopause, taking certain medications or the use of illicit drugs such as cocaine. In these cases, palpitations will generally resolve on their own or with changes in behavior — such as drinking less coffee, learning to control anxiety or making adjustments to the medications you take. But palpitations can also be an indication of underlying health issues, including hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid gland) and any number of underlying cardiovascular conditions.

In general, if palpitations only last a few seconds and do not occur often, medical evaluation may not be necessary. However, if they occur frequently, the episodes are longer or you have already been diagnosed with a related health condition such as heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol or high blood pressure, it is important to seek prompt medical attention. Regardless of your medical history, if other symptoms occur with the palpitations, including dizziness, confusion, shortness of breath and chest discomfort, you should seek emergency medical care.

Heart conditions that may be associated with palpitations include valve disorders, congenital defects and arrhythmias. An arrhythmia refers to an abnormal pattern or rate of the heartbeat. Palpitations can be a symptom of a number of arrhythmias, including the most common one, atrial fibrillation.

If you have experienced prolonged or frequent palpitations, you can visit one of Emory’s new heart rhythm screening clinics located throughout the Atlanta area to determine if your condition is serious. The Emory Arrhythmia Center also provides comprehensive, state-of-the-art care for the full range of heart rhythm disorders.

About Dr. Hoskins

Michael Hoskins, MDMichael Hoskins, MD , is an assistant professor of medicine and electrophysiologist who practices primarily at Emory University Hospital. Dr. Hoskins received his medical degree from the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, after which he completed his residency in internal medicine at Emory. He was chief resident in Internal Medicine from 2005 to 2006. He then completed fellowships in cardiology and electrophysiology, also at Emory, and has been practicing here since 2010.

About Emory’s Arrhythmia Center

Emory’s Arrhythmia Center is one of the most comprehensive and innovative clinics for heart rhythm disorders in the country. Our electrophysiologists have been pioneers in shaping treatment options for patients with arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, as well as for those with congestive heart disease. Our specialized electrophysiology (EP) labs host state-of-the-art equipment, including computerized three-dimensional mapping systems to assist with the ablation of complex arrhythmias, and an excimer laser system to perform pacemaker and defibrillator lead extractions.

Patients with devices, whether implanted at Emory or elsewhere, have access to Emory’s comprehensive follow-up care. Patients benefit from remote monitoring, quarterly atrial fibrillation support groups and 24-hour implantable cardiac device (ICD) and pacemaker monitoring services. Inpatient telemetry and coronary care units, as well as outpatient care and educational support of patients with pacemakers and ICDs, complete Emory’s comprehensive range of arrhythmia treatments and services.

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Has Your Heart Ever “Skipped a Beat”? It Was Probably a Premature Contraction

Heart AtriumThe heart is made up of two upper chambers (atria) and two lower chambers (ventricles). In a normal heartbeat, an electrical impulse originates from an area in the right atrium called the sinus node. This impulse travels first to the atria, causing them to contract and pump blood into the ventricles. The electrical impulse then continues along its circuit to the ventricles, signaling them to contract and pump blood out to the lungs and the body.

Sometimes, abnormal electrical signals originate from areas of the heart other than the sinus node. These extra impulses may target the atria or the ventricles, causing them to contract out of rhythm with the regular heartbeat. This type of arrhythmia is called a premature contraction.

Premature contractions are common and may even go unnoticed. However, some people report a feeling of the heart skipping a beat, often followed by a stronger-than-usual beat. The pause is actually the heart waiting for the regular rhythm to resume. Following the pause, the normal contraction is often stronger than usual due to the presence of a greater volume of blood in the chambers.

Premature contractions may occur for a number of reasons, including an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, certain medications, alcohol or drug use, or increased adrenaline, for instance from exercise or anxiety or the consumption of caffeine or tobacco. Rarely, premature contractions are an indication of an underlying heart condition, such as congenital heart disease, heart failure or scarring of the heart muscle.

In most cases, premature contractions do not require treatment. However, if the symptoms are bothersome or the contractions may exacerbate underlying heart conditions, premature contractions may be treated with medications such as beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers or antiarrhythmics. Your doctor may also instruct you to avoid things that can trigger the contractions, such as caffeine, alcohol or stressful situations.

If lifestyle changes and medications are not effective in reducing or eliminating the premature contractions, your doctor may use cardiac ablation to treat them instead. During an ablation procedure, one or more thin, flexible tubes are guided with X-rays into blood vessels and directed to the heart muscle. Then radiofrequency energy is delivered to destroy very tiny areas of tissue that give rise to abnormal electrical signals.

Emory Healthcare recently launched new screening centers across the Atlanta area to help diagnosis abnormal heart rhythms. If you experience symptoms of premature contractions or any other abnormal heart rhythm, you can visit one of our new screening locations to determine if your condition is serious. In addition to screenings, the new clinics offer state-of-the-art care by some of the country’s leading arrhythmia experts. Clinics in Villa Rica, Conyers and Johns Creek are already operating, and a fourth location in Decatur will open later this summer.

About Dr. Merchant

Faisal Merchant, MDFaisal Merchant, MD , is an assistant professor of medicine who practices primarily at Emory University Hospital Midtown. He received his medical degree from Duke University, completed internal medicine and general cardiology training at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston and a cardiac electrophysiology fellowship at Emory. He specializes in cardiac electrophysiology and treats all forms of arrhythmias, including pacemaker and defibrillator implantation and catheter ablation.

About Emory’s Arrhythmia Center

Emory’s Arrhythmia Center is one of the most comprehensive and innovative clinics for heart rhythm disorders in the country. Our electrophysiologists have been pioneers in shaping treatment options for patients with arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, as well as for those with congestive heart disease. Our specialized electrophysiology (EP) labs host state-of-the-art equipment, including computerized three-dimensional mapping systems to assist with the ablation of complex arrhythmias, and an excimer laser system to perform pacemaker and defibrillator lead extractions.

Patients with devices, whether implanted at Emory or elsewhere, have access to Emory’s comprehensive follow-up care. Patients benefit from remote monitoring, quarterly atrial fibrillation support groups and 24-hour implantable cardiac device (ICD) and pacemaker monitoring services. Inpatient telemetry and coronary care units, as well as outpatient care and educational support of patients with pacemakers and ICDs, complete Emory’s comprehensive range of arrhythmia treatments and services.

Related Links

What Is Atrial Flutter?

Atrial FlutterAtrial flutter, also called “heart flutter,” is a type of arrhythmia that occurs when the upper two chambers of the heart (the atria) contract too rapidly. The first contraction in a normal heartbeat occurs in the atria. This contraction pumps the blood into the lower chambers of the heart, called the ventricles. The second contraction occurs in the ventricles and serves to pump blood out of the heart.

In atrial flutter, the atria contract at an abnormally fast rate, but only about half of these contractions are followed by the second ventricular contraction. This causes the heart to work inefficiently and may result in poor blood supply to the body, including the brain and the heart muscle itself. If the heart and brain do not receive enough blood, organ failure can occur in the form of congestive heart disease, heart attack or stroke.

Atrial flutter can occur on its own, but often occurs in people with other conditions, including atrial fibrillation , heart failure, congenital heart defects, high blood pressure, diabetes, thyroid conditions, heart valve conditions and chronic lung disease. The risk of atrial flutter also increases following serious illness, an episode of heavy drinking, surgery or a heart attack. Symptoms may include heart palpitations (rapid, noticeable heartbeats), dizziness, shortness of breath, lightheadedness and chest pain (angina).

A simple, non-invasive test called an electrocardiogram (ECG) that measures the electrical impulses in the heart can be used to diagnose atrial flutter and other arrhythmias. Upon diagnosis, the doctor will determine the best way to control the rapid heartbeat. If there are serious symptoms, this might be accomplished with IV medications or cardioversion (electrical shock to interrupt the arrhythmia and restore a normal heartbeat). Oral medication is more common if there are not serious symptoms. Because atrial flutter can increase the risk of stroke, many people are also prescribed a blood thinner.

If you believe you are experiencing atrial flutter, it is important to seek emergency care. In addition, follow-up care with a physician that specializes in arrhythmias is also important. Emory’s arrhythmia treatment program is one of the most comprehensive and innovative clinics for heart rhythm disorders in the country. Our physicians have been pioneers in shaping treatment options for patients with arrhythmias. Our Arrhythmia Center offers screening, treatment and heart rhythm management services at locations across Atlanta .

About Dr. Merchant

Faisal Merchant, MDFaisal Merchant, MD , is an assistant professor of medicine who practices primarily at Emory University Hospital Midtown. He received his medical degree from Duke University, completed internal medicine and general cardiology training at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston and a cardiac electrophysiology fellowship at Emory. He specializes in cardiac electrophysiology and treats all forms of arrhythmias, including pacemaker and defibrillator implantation and catheter ablation.

About Emory’s Arrhythmia Center

Emory’s Arrhythmia Center is one of the most comprehensive and innovative clinics for heart rhythm disorders in the country. Our electrophysiologists have been pioneers in shaping treatment options for patients with arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, as well as for those with congestive heart disease. Our specialized electrophysiology (EP) labs host state-of-the-art equipment, including computerized three-dimensional mapping systems to assist with the ablation of complex arrhythmias, and an excimer laser system to perform pacemaker and defibrillator lead extractions.

Patients with devices, whether implanted at Emory or elsewhere, have access to Emory’s comprehensive follow-up care. Patients benefit from remote monitoring, quarterly atrial fibrillation support groups and 24-hour implantable cardiac device (ICD) and pacemaker monitoring services. Inpatient telemetry and coronary care units, as well as outpatient care and educational support of patients with pacemakers and ICDs, complete Emory’s comprehensive range of arrhythmia treatments and services.

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What Causes Congenital Heart Disease?

Congenital heartCongenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common type of birth defect, affecting about 1% of infants born in the United States. While doctors can sometimes pinpoint the likely cause of a particular defect, most of the time the cause is uncertain.

Most CHDs are the isolated type, meaning that they occur alone without other birth defects. In most isolated CHDs, the cause cannot be determined and is generally assumed to be a combination of genetic (inherited) and environmental factors.

There are a number of genetic birth defects that often occur together with CHDs, including Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, Marfan syndrome and Williams syndrome. In these cases, a defect in the infant’s DNA causes the heart to develop improperly. For instance, about half of babies born with Down syndrome also have a CHD, most often a defect in the wall between the left and right sides of the heart (atrioventricular septal defect).

A mother’s exposure to certain substances during pregnancy can increase the risk for CHDs. Some medications increase risk, including certain acne and seizure medications. Environmental exposures can be more difficult to pinpoint but may contribute as well. A mother ingesting too much alcohol during pregnancy can also increase the risk of her infant being born with a heart defect.

In addition to environmental exposures, some health issues in pregnant women can play a role in increasing the risk for CHDs. These include infections such as rubella, as well as chronic conditions that are not under control, such as diabetes and lupus.

The Congenital Heart Center of Georgia was created to bridge the gap between pediatric and adult care for people with CHDs. If you were born with a CHD and haven’t been evaluated regularly by a cardiologist, you were recently diagnosed with a CHD or you have a child who will be transitioning into adult care in the near future, learn more about the Congenital Heart Center of Georgia and make an appointment today.

About Dr. Rodriguez

Fred Rodriguez, MDFred Rodriguez, MD, is a pediatric cardiologist who practices pediatric cardiology at the Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta Sibley Heart Center and adult congenital heart disease at the Emory Clinic and Emory University Hospital. Dr. Rodriguez earned his medical degree from the Louisiana State University at New Orleans School of Medicine, where he also completed his combined residency in both internal medicine and pediatrics. Following his residency, he completed a cardiology fellowship at Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston, with additional training in adult congenital heart disease. He is board certified in pediatrics, pediatric cardiology and internal medicine.

About the Congenital Heart Center of Georgia

The Congenital Heart Center of Georgia is a collaboration between Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta and Emory Healthcare. The Congenital Heart Center of Georgia is a comprehensive program for children and adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) that provides a continuum of lifesaving care from before birth through adulthood. It is the first comprehensive CHD program in the South and one of the largest in the country. The program is led by Emory Healthcare cardiologist Wendy Book, MD, along with Robert Campbell, MD, chief of cardiac services and director of cardiology at Children’s Sibley Heart Center. To schedule an appointment, please call 404-778-7777.

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What Is Arrhythmia?

arrhythmiaAn arrhythmia refers to an abnormal pattern or rate of the heartbeat. Arrhythmias can include heartbeats that are too fast, too slow or irregular, as is the case with atrial fibrillation , the most common arrhythmia in the United States that requires medical attention.

The normal rhythm of the heart is a tightly regulated but dynamic electrical phenomenon that changes according to the needs of the body. The heart has built-in pacemakers and “wiring” that coordinate contractions in the organ’s upper chambers (the atria) and lower chambers (the ventricles). Glitches in this complicated electrical system can cause the heart to “misfire.”

Everyone has felt their heart “skip” a beat or two or speed up in times of fear or excitement or during exercise. Too much caffeine and certain medications can also cause heart palpitations (rapid thumping in the chest) in some people. These types of arrhythmias are generally harmless.

If irregular heartbeats are frequent or chronic, they can be serious. The consequences of having an arrhythmia usually depend not only on symptoms they can cause (such as faintness), but also on the presence of heart disease or structural abnormalities. In serious cases, the heart may not be able to pump enough blood to the body. Lack of blood flow can damage the brain, heart and other organs.

Common symptoms of arrhythmia include:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Palpitations
  • Feeling tired or light-headed
  • Passing out

Call your doctor if you have any of these symptoms of arrhythmia, especially if you have heart disease or have had a heart attack.

If you have experienced an irregular heartbeat, palpitations, a racing heartbeat or other heart irregularities, we recommend that you schedule an appointment with a specialty-trained Emory Healthcare Nurse Practitioner who will begin a comprehensive screening evaluation to determine whether you need follow-up care with an Emory Electrophysiologist. Call 404-778-7777 to schedule your screening appointment. You can also learn more about the Emory Arrhythmia Center online .

About Dr. Lloyd

Michael Lloyd, MDMichael Lloyd, MD , began practicing medicine at Emory in 2007. He specializes in cardiology and cardiac electrophysiology. His areas of clinical interest and research include arrhythmias in athletes, arrhythmias in young adults with congenital heart disease, atrial fibrillation and implantable devices for the treatment of heart failure. Dr. Lloyd is the program director for the Cardiac Electrophysiology Fellowship Program at Emory and holds organizational leadership positions with the American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association and the Heart Rhythm Society.

About Emory’s Arrhythmia Center

Emory’s Arrhythmia Center is one of the most comprehensive and innovative clinics for heart rhythm disorders in the country. Our electrophysiologists have been pioneers in shaping treatment options for patients with arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, as well as for those with congestive heart disease. Our specialized electrophysiology (EP) labs host state-of-the-art equipment, including computerized three-dimensional mapping systems to assist with the ablation of complex arrhythmias, and an excimer laser system to perform pacemaker and defibrillator lead extractions.

Patients with devices, whether implanted at Emory or elsewhere, have access to Emory’s comprehensive follow-up care. Patients benefit from remote monitoring, quarterly atrial fibrillation support groups and 24-hour implantable cardiac device (ICD) and pacemaker monitoring services. Inpatient telemetry and coronary care units, as well as outpatient care and educational support of patients with pacemakers and ICDs, complete Emory’s comprehensive range of arrhythmia treatments and services.

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How Does Heart Disease Present Differently in Women?

Women's Heart DiseaseHeart disease is the leading cause of death in both men and women in the United States, but it can manifest differently in women. In addition, certain types of heart disease affect women more often than men.

The most common type of heart disease is coronary artery disease (CAD). This occurs as a result of plaque buildup in the arteries (atherosclerosis) causing a decrease in blood flow to the heart muscle. It is well known that women may experience different symptoms of CAD than men. One of the most common symptoms is chest pain, also known as angina, which occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. In men, angina tends to manifest as a pressure or squeezing sensation in the chest. Although women also have chest pain, they are more likely to have atypical symptoms such as indigestion, shortness of breath or pain in the neck, jaw, stomach or back.

Coronary microvascular disease (MVD) is similar to CAD in that it affects the blood supply to the heart muscle. Instead of the major coronary arteries being blocked by significant plaque, in MVD there is spasm of the smaller arteries of the heart. This disorder affects women in greater numbers than men. Risk factors for coronary MVD are similar to those for CAD, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and high cholesterol. As with CAD, angina is the most common symptom. However, in MVD, the angina tends to occur during normal daily activities and at times of mental stress.

Broken heart syndrome is another type of heart disease that is more common in women. Broken heart syndrome is also known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy or takotsubo cardiomyopathy and is characterized by chest pain and shortness of breath. Although, the symptoms are similar to a heart attack, stress-induced cardiomyopathy is not associated with significantly blocked coronary arteries. As the name implies, this syndrome develops as a result of extreme emotional or physical stress. Most individuals completely recover within a short amount of time with appropriate treatment.

Because heart disease often affects women differently than men, Emory created the Women’s Heart Center, a unique program dedicated to diagnosis, screening, treatment and prevention of heart disease in women. The Emory Women’s Heart Center physicians understand these differences and have specialized education and expertise in this area.

About Dr. Isiadinso

Ijeoma Isiadinso, MDIjeoma Isiadinso, MD, MPH, is an assistant professor of medicine at Emory University School of Medicine. Dr. Isiadinso completed her undergraduate studies at Binghamton University in New York, majoring in biology and sociology. She then pursued a joint degree in medicine and public health at MCP Hahnemann (Drexel University) School of Medicine. Dr. Isiadinso completed a residency in internal medicine and a fellowship in cardiology at Temple University Hospital in Philadelphia. She served as chief fellow during the final year of her cardiology fellowship.

Her commitment to public health has led to her involvement in several projects focused on heart disease and diabetes. She has participated in research projects with the Philadelphia Department of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). She has been the recipient of numerous awards and presented her work at national conferences. Her research interests include inequalities in health care, community and preventive health, lipid disorders, women and heart disease, and program development and evaluation.

Dr. Isiadinso has served as the health advisor to nonprofit organizations. She has participated in panel discussions at high schools and universities and with the Black Entertainment Television Foundation.

Dr. Isiadinso is board certified in internal medicine, cardiovascular diseases, nuclear cardiology, echocardiography and cardiovascular computed tomography. She is a member of several professional organizations, including the Association of Black Cardiologists, the American College of Cardiology, the American Society of Preventive Cardiology and the American Public Health Association.

About the Emory Women’s Heart Center

Emory Women’s Heart Center is a unique program dedicated to screening for, preventing and treating heart disease in women. The Center, led by nationally renowned cardiologist Gina Lundberg, MD, provides comprehensive cardiac risk assessments and screenings for patients at risk for heart disease, as well as a full range of treatment options for women already diagnosed with heart disease. Call 404-778-7777 to schedule a comprehensive cardiac screening and find out if you are at risk for heart disease.

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Emory Opens Heart Rhythm Clinics to Treat Growing Problem

arrhythmia screening centerEmory Healthcare is launching new screening centers across the Atlanta area to help diagnosis abnormal heart rhythms, or arrhythmias. An arrhythmia is a disorder of the heart that occurs when the body’s electrical impulses, which direct and regulate heartbeats, do not function properly and cause the heart to beat slowly (bradyarrhythmias), rapidly (tachyarrhythmias) or in an uncoordinated manner.

The new clinics will offer screening and, if needed, state-of-the-art care by some of the country’s leading arrhythmia experts. Clinics in Villa Rica, Conyers and Johns Creek are already operating, and a fourth location in Decatur will open later this summer.

Emory has been a pioneer in shaping arrhythmia treatment options, serving as primary and principal investigators for many national clinical trials. We rank among the world’s leaders in cardiac resynchronization therapy and have performed more cardiac ablation procedures than anyone in the Southeast.

According to the American Heart Association, atrial fibrillation (A-fib) is the most common chronic cardiac dysrhythmia and affects nearly 2.3 million people in the United States. The prevalence of arrhythmias is age-related and is expected to rise substantially as the baby boomer population continues to age.

Emory has one of the most wide-ranging and innovative treatment programs for heart rhythm disorders in the United States. Anyone who is experiencing palpitations, heart racing or other rhythm symptoms can visit one of our new screening locations to determine if their condition is serious and requires treatment by a specialist.

To learn more about arrhythmia screening, treatment and heart rhythm management services at Emory, please visit emoryhealthcare.org/arrhythmia.

About Dr. Hoskins

Michael Hoskins, MDMichael Hoskins, MD , is an assistant professor of medicine and electrophysiologist who practices primarily at Emory University Hospital. Dr. Hoskins received his medical degree from the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, after which he completed his residency in internal medicine at Emory. He was chief resident in Internal Medicine from 2005 to 2006. He then completed fellowships in cardiology and electrophysiology, also at Emory, and has been practicing here since 2010.

About Emory’s Arrhythmia Center

Emory’s Arrhythmia Center is one of the most comprehensive and innovative clinics for heart rhythm disorders in the country. Our electrophysiologists have been pioneers in shaping treatment options for patients with arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, as well as for those with congestive heart disease. Our specialized electrophysiology (EP) labs host state-of-the-art equipment, including computerized three-dimensional mapping systems to assist with the ablation of complex arrhythmias, and an excimer laser system to perform pacemaker and defibrillator lead extractions.

Patients with devices, whether implanted at Emory or elsewhere, have access to Emory’s comprehensive follow-up care. Patients benefit from remote monitoring, quarterly atrial fibrillation support groups and 24-hour implantable cardiac device (ICD) and pacemaker monitoring services. Inpatient telemetry and coronary care units, as well as outpatient care and educational support of patients with pacemakers and ICDs, complete Emory’s comprehensive range of arrhythmia treatments and services.

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