Posts Tagged ‘prostate cancer prevention’

4 Ways Men Can Lower Their Risk of Cancer

Family ManOne out of every two men in the United States will be diagnosed with cancer at some point in our lives. It’s a sobering statistic to consider as we head into Father’s Day weekend. Beyond skin cancer, men are most frequently diagnosed with prostate, lung or colorectal cancer. Those are also the three malignancies responsible for the highest number of deaths in men.

Reducing your risk of cancer is more important than ever. Here are four ways to make an impact today.

  1. If you use any tobacco products, quit now. Cigarette smoking is responsible for more than a dozen types of cancer including those involving our lungs, bladder, and mouth. Chewing tobacco and snuff can also cause head and neck, esophageal, stomach or pancreatic cancer. Talk with your doctor about the best ways to help you kick the habit for good. Finding a support group can also make a big difference in whether you succeed.
  2. Cut back on alcohol consumption. Heavy drinking can cause health problems, but did you also know that alcohol can increase your risk for cancers of the mouth, throat, liver and colon? Even worse: drinking and smoking at the same time. It is recommended that men consume no more than two alcoholic drinks a day. In case you were wondering, one drink contains 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof liquor.
  3. Listen to your wife or partner and get a checkup. Starting at the age of 50, men at average risk for colorectal cancer should have a colonoscopy. If no polyps are found, the test should be repeated every 10 years. Your doctor may recommend a fecal occult blood test at an earlier age. Also at 50, talk with your doctor about the pros and cons of getting a PSA test to screen for prostate cancer. If you are considered to be in a high-risk group, your doctor may recommend that you be tested earlier.
  4. Get off the couch and get some exercise. You’ve heard it before, but as a doctor, I can tell you that regular physical activity is one of the best ways to control your weight, reduce stress and lower your risk of cancer. Try to get at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity exercise each week or 75 minutes of vigorous workouts.

As you get ready to celebrate Father’s Day, put down that cigarette and beer, get outside and grab a tennis racket, a soccer ball or even a Frisbee. Also don’t forget to wear sunscreen…at least with a SPF of 30! Have a great Father’s Day!!!

About Dr. Curran

Walter Curran, MDWalter J. Curran, Jr., MD was appointed Executive Director of Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University in 2009. He joined Emory in January 2008, as the Lawrence W. Davis Professor and Chairman of Emory’s Department of Radiation Oncology. He also serves as Group Chairman and Principal Investigator of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), a National Cancer Institute-funded cooperative group, a position he has held since 1997. Curran has been named a Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar and Chair in Cancer Research as well as a Georgia Cancer Coalition Distinguished Cancer Scholar.

Dr. Curran has been a principal investigator on over thirty National Cancer Institute-supported grants and is considered an international expert in the management of patients with locally advanced lung cancer and malignant brain tumors. He has led several landmark clinical and translational trials in both areas and is responsible for defining a universally adopted staging system for patients with malignant glioma and for leading the randomized trial which defined the best therapeutic approach to patients with locally advanced lung cancer. He serves as the Founding Secretary/Treasurer of the Coalition of Cancer Cooperative Groups and is a Board Member of the Georgia Center for Oncology Research and Education (Georgia CORE). Dr. Curran is the only radiation oncologist to have ever served as Director of a National Cancer Institute-Designated Cancer Center.

Dr. Curran is a Fellow in the American College of Radiology and has been awarded honorary memberships in the European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncology. According to the Blue Ridge Institute for Medical Research, Dr. Curran ranked among the top ten principal investigators in terms of National Cancer Institute grant awards in 2013, and was first among investigators in Georgia, and first among cancer center directors.

Questions on Validity of PSA Test as Prostate Cancer Screening Tool?

Prostate Cancer PSA ScreeningViraj Master, MD Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among American men.  Nearly 250,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer this year.  More than 32,000 men will die from prostate cancer this year.  In Georgia, 7,360 men will be diagnosed and 1,080 will die.  With statistics like that, we want every advantage possible in our fight with this disease.

Since the early 1990s, the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) test has been the primary screening tool used to detect prostate cancer. The PSA is a simple blood test, non-invasive and easy to administer and process.  The US Preventive Services Task Force has recently recommended, however, that the PSA test no longer be offered to men as a screening tool.

This task force is a federally funded independent panel of experts in prevention and evidence-based medicine.  It is comprised of primary care providers such as internists, family practitioners and pediatricians, but not oncologists or urologists.  Their job is to evaluate the benefits of preventive services like screening and make recommendations about which services should be routinely incorporated into primary medical care.

Screening, or early detection, for prostate cancer is a complicated issue.  Unlike the colonoscopy, which provides clear evidence of early detection and has been determined to have saved lives in multiple studies, the PSA test has been contradictory, with some studies showing a benefit, while others did not.  There are many reasons, including the fact that most forms of prostate cancer are relatively slow-growing cancers.  Generally, a man with prostate cancer may live for many years without ever having the cancer discovered.  In fact, many men with prostate cancer will not die from it, but with it.  In addition, high or increasing levels of PSA can indicate an increased risk for prostate cancer, but can also indicate an infection or an enlarged prostate.  So, the USPSTF determined that because of these uncertainties, the risk of over treatment is greater than the benefit, and their recommendation states that PSA tests should no longer be offered as a screening tool.

The biggest issue in prostate cancer that confronts patients, their families and their healthcare providers is to delink screening with treatment.  Not all forms of prostate cancer require active therapeutic interventions, but some do.

While the PSA test is imperfect, it is – at this time – the best tool we have at our disposal for early detection of prostate cancer.  The Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University aligns with the American Urological Association, the American Cancer Society, American College of Physicians and the American College of Preventive Medicine and recommends informed decision-making.  Our recommendation is that men at average risk should receive information, including a PSA test if they want it, at an appropriate middle age, although African American men or men with a family history of prostate cancer should receive information at an earlier age, such as 40, or 45 years.

So, what do we mean when we say “informed decision-making”?  This means that doctors should discuss the potential benefits and harms of PSA screening with their patients and consider their patients’ preferences, overall health, and family history when making decisions regarding screening with a PSA test.

Unfortunately, there is no easy answer.  Each patient comes to us with his own distinctive characteristics, and those characteristics must be taken into consideration when deciding whether to have the PSA test.

About Dr. Viraj Master
Dr. Master specializes in the treatment of adrenal cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, prostate cancer, testicular cancer. He is also an expert in laparoscopic surgery. Dr. Master received his Medical Degree in the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois, in 1997. He completed his Internship at University of California, San Francisco in 1999, where he also completed his Fellowship in 2003.